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Current Commutation Characteristics and Its Influential Factors for High-voltage Direct Current Transfer Switches EI
期刊论文 | 2018 , 44 (9) , 2856-2864 | Gaodianya Jishu/High Voltage Engineering
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Abstract :

High-voltage direct current (HVDC) transfer switches are key equipment in HVDC transmission system. We investigated the current commutation characteristics and its influential factors, and established a field-circuit coupled arc model of a 500 kV self-excited oscillatory HVDC transfer switch by deducing and discrediting the fundamental circuit equations satisfied by transfer switches. Firstly, the current commutation characteristics of the transfer switch under interrupting current of DC 4kA were studied. The calculated arc current and voltage were compared with the experimental results. Oscillation frequency of arc current in the experiment and simulation were 3 450 Hz and 3 759 Hz, respectively. Secondly, the influence of reactor and capacitor of the commutation path on the current oscillation process was investigated (L and C are 0.8 and 1.2 times of their typical values). Relationship between the radius, temperature and pressure of the arc and the current commutation characteristics was discussed. Finally, considering that air is a low-cost and environmentally friendly gas, arc characteristics of transfer switches in SF6 and air were analyzed and compared. It is found that the simulation results are partially verified by the experimental results. Increasing values of reactor or capacitor can enhance the arc oscillation, accelerate the current commutation, and then narrow down the arcing time. As the resonance frequency is the same, the reactor has a much greater influence on the oscillation process than capacitor. Compared with SF6, arcing time in air is shorter (reduced by about 4.5 ms), and peak voltage over capacitor in air is lower (decreased from 4 086.6 V to 2 760.5 V), which makes air applicable to transfer switches. In addition, it is expected that the simulation method could be applied to parameters optimization of transfer switches. © 2018, High Voltage Engineering Editorial Department of CEPRI. All right reserved.

Keyword :

Field-circuit coupled High voltage direct current HVDC transmission system Parameters optimization Resonance frequencies Self excited oscillation Temperature and pressures Transfer switches

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GB/T 7714 Li, Xingwen , Guo, Ze , Fu, Mingli et al. Current Commutation Characteristics and Its Influential Factors for High-voltage Direct Current Transfer Switches [J]. | Gaodianya Jishu/High Voltage Engineering , 2018 , 44 (9) : 2856-2864 .
MLA Li, Xingwen et al. "Current Commutation Characteristics and Its Influential Factors for High-voltage Direct Current Transfer Switches" . | Gaodianya Jishu/High Voltage Engineering 44 . 9 (2018) : 2856-2864 .
APA Li, Xingwen , Guo, Ze , Fu, Mingli , Zhuo, Ran , Wang, Dibo , Luo, Yan . Current Commutation Characteristics and Its Influential Factors for High-voltage Direct Current Transfer Switches . | Gaodianya Jishu/High Voltage Engineering , 2018 , 44 (9) , 2856-2864 .
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Dielectric Properties of Fluoronitriles/CO2 and SF6/N-2 Mixtures as a Possible SF6-Substitute Gas EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 25 (4) , 1332-1339 | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION
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Abstract :

Perfluoronitriles (PFN) and their mixtures have garnered much attention as a great potential SF6-substitute gas, owing to their excellent dielectric strengths and minimal impacts on the environment. The dielectric properties of C4-PFN/CO2 and SF6/N-2 mixtures are investigated and compared by experiments and calculations, with taking into account the limitations of saturated vapor pressure on the mixed ratio at certain ambient temperatures. The saturated vapor pressures of these two mixtures are determined by combining the Antoine Equation and the basic law of vapor liquid equilibrium. Then, the 50% breakdown voltages V-50% of the C4-PFN/CO2 and SF6/N-2 mixtures are determined by tests with up-and-down method, and the values of E/p are deduced. Finally, the dielectric properties of these two mixtures are analyzed by combining the saturated vapor pressure characteristics and the breakdown electric field strengths. The results show that a proper choice of the mixed ratio and gas pressure of the C4-PFN/CO2 mixture can provide a stronger DS than the SF6/N-2 mixture and pure SF6. This indicates a great potential of the C4-PFN/CO2 mixture as a SF6-substitute gas for high voltage apparatus.

Keyword :

dielectric breakdown C4-PFN SF6/N-2 fluoronitriles/CO2 SF6 substitute

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GB/T 7714 Zhao, Hu , Li, Xingwen , Tang, Nian et al. Dielectric Properties of Fluoronitriles/CO2 and SF6/N-2 Mixtures as a Possible SF6-Substitute Gas [J]. | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION , 2018 , 25 (4) : 1332-1339 .
MLA Zhao, Hu et al. "Dielectric Properties of Fluoronitriles/CO2 and SF6/N-2 Mixtures as a Possible SF6-Substitute Gas" . | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION 25 . 4 (2018) : 1332-1339 .
APA Zhao, Hu , Li, Xingwen , Tang, Nian , Jiang, Xu , Guo, Ze , Lin, Hui . Dielectric Properties of Fluoronitriles/CO2 and SF6/N-2 Mixtures as a Possible SF6-Substitute Gas . | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION , 2018 , 25 (4) , 1332-1339 .
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Electrical Characteristics of Microsecond Electrical Explosion of Cu Wires in Air Under Various Parameters EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 46 (4) , 972-981 | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE
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Abstract :

Electrical explosion of wires has caused the attention of researchers because of its rich physical phenomena and plenty applications. Microsecond electrical explosion of Cu wires in air under various parameters is conducted, and diverse discharge waveforms are displayed and analyzed. By statistically summarizing the experimental results, experimental parameter selection suggestions for specific applications are given. In addition, the experimental results show that the average axial breakdown field strength is greatly changed with the breakdown time. It drops linearly from similar to 13 to similar to 3 kV/cm when breakdown time varies from 2 to 6 mu s, it keeps at a relatively low value about 1 kV/cm when the breakdown occurred after 8 mu s. The effect of current density on the rising edge of the resistivity curve is confirmed by the experimental results. Based on the correlation between the breakdown time and breakdown field strength and the correlation between the maximum current density and specific action when resistivity reaches 200 mu Omega center dot cm, the specific-action model is improved empirically. The proposed "two-stage" model better reflects the actual physical process and has higher accuracy and a wider scope of application.

Keyword :

Electrical characteristic specific-action model electrical explosion of wires (EEW)

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GB/T 7714 Yin, Guofeng , Li, Xingwen , Jia, Shenli . Electrical Characteristics of Microsecond Electrical Explosion of Cu Wires in Air Under Various Parameters [J]. | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE , 2018 , 46 (4) : 972-981 .
MLA Yin, Guofeng et al. "Electrical Characteristics of Microsecond Electrical Explosion of Cu Wires in Air Under Various Parameters" . | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE 46 . 4 (2018) : 972-981 .
APA Yin, Guofeng , Li, Xingwen , Jia, Shenli . Electrical Characteristics of Microsecond Electrical Explosion of Cu Wires in Air Under Various Parameters . | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE , 2018 , 46 (4) , 972-981 .
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SF6-alternative gases for application in gas-insulated switchgear EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 51 (15) | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS
WoS CC Cited Count: 6 SCOPUS Cited Count: 8
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Abstract :

The environmental problems caused by greenhouse gases have received unprecedented attention. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which is the preferred gas for use in gas-insulated switchgear (circuit breakers, disconnect switches, etc. for high-voltage electrical circuits), has a very high global warming potential, and there is a large international effort to find alternative gases. Recently, this effort has made important progress, with promising alternative gases being identified and tested. An overview, in particular the current state of the art, of the study of SF6-alternative gases is presented in the paper. The review focuses on the application of the SF6-alternative gases in gas-insulated switchgear, with detailed analysis of calculations and measurements of their basic physical properties, dielectric strengths, and arc-quenching capabilities. Finally, a discussion of and perspectives on current research and future research directions are presented.

Keyword :

SF6 circuit breakers thermal plasmas gas-insulated switchgear

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GB/T 7714 Li, Xingwen , Zhao, Hu , Murphy, Anthony B. . SF6-alternative gases for application in gas-insulated switchgear [J]. | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS , 2018 , 51 (15) .
MLA Li, Xingwen et al. "SF6-alternative gases for application in gas-insulated switchgear" . | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS 51 . 15 (2018) .
APA Li, Xingwen , Zhao, Hu , Murphy, Anthony B. . SF6-alternative gases for application in gas-insulated switchgear . | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS , 2018 , 51 (15) .
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An electrothermal plasma model considering polyethylene and copper ablation based on ignition experiment EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 51 (23) | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

In order to study the characteristics of electrothermal plasma interaction with energetic materials, especially the ignition ability, a novel model considering polyethylene and copper ablation is developed, and an ignition experiment system is set up. The parameters of the plasma and the surface conditions of the energetic materials are measured in the testing. The results show the measured first peak pressure to be similar to 2.2 MPa, the second peak pressure to be similar to 3.9 MPa, and the visible flame velocity to be similar to 2000 m s(-1). Circular pits of the order of microns and nanometers in size are observed on the surface of the energetic materials. Further, the parameters of the plasma, including static pressure, total pressure, density, temperature, velocity, copper concentration and PE concentration, are calculated and analyzed by the established model, under discharge currents of 9 kA. The simulation is similar to those of experimental results. A shock wave is observed in the experiment and is presented in the calculations; it plays an important role in the performance of the plasma in the nozzle region, where the parameters of the plasma variation trends are very complex. With the aim of obtaining the overall performance of the plasma, the coupling characteristics of multiple parameters must be taken into account, in accordance with the developed electrothermal plasma model.

Keyword :

copper ablation ignition system electrothermal plasma energetic materials shock wave

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Jiangbo , Li, Xingwen , Hang, Yuhua et al. An electrothermal plasma model considering polyethylene and copper ablation based on ignition experiment [J]. | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS , 2018 , 51 (23) .
MLA Zhang, Jiangbo et al. "An electrothermal plasma model considering polyethylene and copper ablation based on ignition experiment" . | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS 51 . 23 (2018) .
APA Zhang, Jiangbo , Li, Xingwen , Hang, Yuhua , Yang, Weihong . An electrothermal plasma model considering polyethylene and copper ablation based on ignition experiment . | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS , 2018 , 51 (23) .
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Numerical Study of Influence of Frequency and Eddy Currents on Arc Motion in Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 8 (8) , 1373-1380 | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
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The air circuit breaker used for permanent magnet wind power generation systems should switch OFF the short-circuit current of variable frequencies. This paper focuses on the influence of frequency on the behavior of air arc. A 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of air arc plasma was developed to investigate the arc motion process at variable frequencies. In this model, the eddy currents in the whole calculation domains including the electrodes, the splitter plate, and the arc column were considered, and the magnetic vector potential approach was adopted to calculate the electromagnetic field produced by the current loop. A thin layer of elements with a nonlinear voltage-current density characteristic surrounding the splitter plate was employed to represent the formation of new arc roots and electrodes voltage drop. Based on this model, the evolutions of arc voltage, temperature, normalized time, and current density were obtained and compared among variable frequencies. The simulation results reveal that the normalized time, the eddy current density peak in splitter plate, and the arc voltage peak increase at a higher frequency.

Keyword :

eddy current Air circuit breaker (ACB) frequency magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) motion process

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GB/T 7714 Yin, Jianning , Wang, Qian , Li, Xingwen et al. Numerical Study of Influence of Frequency and Eddy Currents on Arc Motion in Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker [J]. | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY , 2018 , 8 (8) : 1373-1380 .
MLA Yin, Jianning et al. "Numerical Study of Influence of Frequency and Eddy Currents on Arc Motion in Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker" . | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY 8 . 8 (2018) : 1373-1380 .
APA Yin, Jianning , Wang, Qian , Li, Xingwen , Xu, Hongyu . Numerical Study of Influence of Frequency and Eddy Currents on Arc Motion in Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker . | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY , 2018 , 8 (8) , 1373-1380 .
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Experimental Study on Contact Behavior of Tilted Contact in Air Circuit Breaker EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 8 (3) , 343-349 | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
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Abstract :

Short-time withstanding current is a key parameter of air circuit breakers. Due to the structure of multiple parallel contacts, the outer movable conductors tilt and slide seriously when withstanding the large short-circuit current. This paper is aimed to investigate the contact behavior of the tilted contact. A new designed experimental setup to measure the minimum repulsion current and the contact resistance of the tilted contact is developed. Contact force and tilt angle can also be measured and adjusted. Based on the measured results and the impression marks of the tilted contact, it is concluded that the repulsion force and the contact resistance are increased seriously when the contact is tilted. During the contact tilting process, the contact type is changed from the line contact to the point contact and the contact center is offset to the edge of the movable contact. In addition, with the help of contact bridge model, it is also found that the contact type transition plays a dominant role on the increase of the repulsion force and contact resistance.

Keyword :

contact resistance minimum repulsion current short-time withstand current electric contact contact behavior Air circuit breaker (ACB) contact tilt

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GB/T 7714 Li, Xingwen , Wang, Yunfeng , Wang, Qian et al. Experimental Study on Contact Behavior of Tilted Contact in Air Circuit Breaker [J]. | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY , 2018 , 8 (3) : 343-349 .
MLA Li, Xingwen et al. "Experimental Study on Contact Behavior of Tilted Contact in Air Circuit Breaker" . | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY 8 . 3 (2018) : 343-349 .
APA Li, Xingwen , Wang, Yunfeng , Wang, Qian , Qu, Jianyu , Liu, Hongwu . Experimental Study on Contact Behavior of Tilted Contact in Air Circuit Breaker . | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY , 2018 , 8 (3) , 343-349 .
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Simulation Analysis of Arc Evolution Process in Multiple Parallel Contact Systems EI CPCI-S SCIE Scopus
会议论文 | 2018 , 46 (8) , 2788-2793 | 18th China National Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (CNCPST)
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Abstract :

Air circuit breaker (ACB) is widely used in power distribution system. The movable contact of ACB consists of multiple parallel contacts and the arc will be ignited between arcing contact and static contact when the short-circuit current appears. This paper focuses on the arc evolution process at various currents in multiple parallel contact systems. A 3-D magnetohydrodynamic model of a multiple parallel contact structures is developed. In this model, the anode consists to five parallel contacts, and they are separated by insulation material. The near-electrode layer with a nonlinear voltage-current density characteristic is modeled to describe the near-electrode voltage drop, and the difference between near-anode and near-cathode layers is considered. The magnetic vector potential approach is adopted to calculate the time-varying electromagnetic field produced by the current loop. The arc evolution processes at various currents are analyzed by current density and arc voltage. It is noted that the anode arc root appears on multiple contacts with the increase of current. The arc evolution process mainly depends on the arc resistance characteristic.

Keyword :

near-electrodes voltage drop evolution process Air circuit breaker (ACB) multiple parallel contacts magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)

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GB/T 7714 Yin, Jianning , Wang, Qian , Li, Xingwen . Simulation Analysis of Arc Evolution Process in Multiple Parallel Contact Systems [C] . 2018 : 2788-2793 .
MLA Yin, Jianning et al. "Simulation Analysis of Arc Evolution Process in Multiple Parallel Contact Systems" . (2018) : 2788-2793 .
APA Yin, Jianning , Wang, Qian , Li, Xingwen . Simulation Analysis of Arc Evolution Process in Multiple Parallel Contact Systems . (2018) : 2788-2793 .
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Effect of humidity on dielectric breakdown properties of air considering ion kinetics EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 51 (37) | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS
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This paper investigates the dielectric breakdown properties of humid air, taking into account ion kinetics. Initially, an overall kinetic scheme that includes all the main reactions likely to happen in humid air is established for the first time. Then, the calculation method of dielectric properties is improved, based on more comprehensive avalanche model considering both spatial growth and temporal processes. Better consistency between present results and experimental values confirms the validity of the improved method and kinetic schemes. Finally, the effective ionization Townsend coefficients a alpha(eff) in humid air at different humidity and gas pressures are calculated and analyzed considering ion kinetics. Reduced critical electric field strength (EIN)(cr) can be determined when a alpha(eff) = 0. The results show that (EIN)(cr) in humid air increases sharply in the beginning and then tends to be constant with the humidity rises. Besides, the mechanism of humidity's effect on dielectric breakdown properties is well explained: at relatively low EIN, alpha(eff) decreases with the increase of humidity mainly due to more frequent three-body conversions, while at higher EIN, the main reason is the increased number of attachment reactions.

Keyword :

dielectric breakdown ion kinetics avalanche model

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GB/T 7714 Li, Bingxu , Li, Xingwen , Fu, Mingli et al. Effect of humidity on dielectric breakdown properties of air considering ion kinetics [J]. | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS , 2018 , 51 (37) .
MLA Li, Bingxu et al. "Effect of humidity on dielectric breakdown properties of air considering ion kinetics" . | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS 51 . 37 (2018) .
APA Li, Bingxu , Li, Xingwen , Fu, Mingli , Zhuo, Ran , Wang, Dibo . Effect of humidity on dielectric breakdown properties of air considering ion kinetics . | JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS , 2018 , 51 (37) .
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Imaging of Discharge Plasma Channel Evolution Process of Microsecond Wire Explosion in Air EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 46 (10) , 3473-3477 | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE
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The discharge plasma channel (DPC) evolution process is observed by taking time-series self-emission intensified charge-coupled device (iCCD) photos and simultaneous shadow images. By adding neutral density filters before iCCD, the subtle structure of the DPC self-emission is observed. It is interesting that a treelike structure is observed soon after the voltage breakdown. Long exposure time photos demonstrate that this structure existed for hundreds of nanoseconds. An inner homogeneously luminous column arises latterly, forming a two-layer self-emission structure. Then, this column gradually occupies the whole DPC. Shadow images show that the expanding DPC maintains good axial uniformity, manifesting the long-standing uneven treelike structure only has limited impact on the energy distribution and the expansion process. The calculated expansion rate reaches its maximum value (4.75 km/s) not at the power peak, but 0.24 mu s after that. Then, the expansion rate undergoes fast drop and slow decline. In addition, it seems that the distributions of related plasma parameters experience an evolution from nonuniform to uniform.

Keyword :

shadow images Explosion of wire (EEW) self-emission

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GB/T 7714 Yin, Guofeng , Li, Xingwen , Wu, Jian et al. Imaging of Discharge Plasma Channel Evolution Process of Microsecond Wire Explosion in Air [J]. | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE , 2018 , 46 (10) : 3473-3477 .
MLA Yin, Guofeng et al. "Imaging of Discharge Plasma Channel Evolution Process of Microsecond Wire Explosion in Air" . | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE 46 . 10 (2018) : 3473-3477 .
APA Yin, Guofeng , Li, Xingwen , Wu, Jian , Shi, Huantong , Zhong, Wei , Huang, Qinghua . Imaging of Discharge Plasma Channel Evolution Process of Microsecond Wire Explosion in Air . | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE , 2018 , 46 (10) , 3473-3477 .
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