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< Page ,Total 35 >
Anatomy of a late Quaternary carbonate island: Constraints on timing and magnitude of sea-level fluctuations, West Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands, BWI EI
期刊论文 | 2019 , 205 , 193-223 | Quaternary Science Reviews
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Abstract :

The data set of the island of West Caicos consists of a combination of high-resolution lidar and digital imagery, radiometric data, and amino acid racemization (AAR) D/L values as well as extraordinary preservation of sedimentary and bio-constructed deposits on the island. Together with a well-established regional stratigraphic framework from the neighboring Bahamian island chain and detailed field mapping, the West Caicos data set provides an opportunity to advance our understanding of the link between carbonate stratigraphy and the controlling parameters of sea level, sediment supply, tectonics, and climate. The exceptionally well-preserved stratigraphic record of the mid–late Pleistocene from West Caicos allows recognition of marine isotope stages (MIS) 9/11, 5e, and Holocene. The west coast of the island provides a continuous 8.4 km exposure of the MIS 5e record that enhances our understanding of the intra-MIS 5e bipartite succession in this region and supports a sea-level lowering that occurred during the last interglacial (LIG). West Caicos accreted as a series of eolian, foreshore–shoreface, barrier-reef, and fringing-reef facies. Shoreline positions for all but the MIS 7 and MIS 5a/c deposits are now captured in the sub-meter geodetic-quality topobathy lidar survey. The Star Town unit of MIS 9/11 age forms the southern margin of the island as well as the central karst-modified spine, with uranium–thorium (U–Th) coral ages of between 368 and 365 thousand years ago (ka) and a D/L Glu average of >0.60. Early MIS 5e strata include the Railroad Ridge unit in the center of the island, which was previously identified as one of the older units. The Railroad Ridge unit is a north–south linear dune ridge that has a D/L Glu average of 0.52 and indicates the onset of sediment sources from the east associated with a flooded central Caicos Platform. Approximately synchronously, the early MIS 5e South Reef unit (+3.75–4 m sea-level elevation) nucleated on the western coast of West Caicos, attached to the middle Pleistocene Star Town unit. The South Reef corals yield an average coral U–Th age of 126.5 ka, with an average D/L Glu from skeletal matrix of 0.46. This transitional barrier/fringing reef is unconformably overlain by the late MIS 5e Boat Cove unit. Corals in the basal transgressive phase of this upper MIS 5e Boat Cove unit yield an average 120.6 ka U–Th and average D/L Glu of 0.45. Shallow-marine, foreshore, and eolian facies of the late MIS 5e rest on a wave-cut terrace that cuts the early MIS 5e South Reef unit by as much as 3 m down to a +0.5 m above present sea-level elevation. The upper MIS 5e Boat Cove unit displays a maximum of +4.5 m elevation above present-day sea level, measured from the middle of the foreshore. This estimate may be a minimum value as the exposures on the west coast are part of a forced regressive foreshore sequence. Last stages of the upper MIS 5e deposition are seen in a series of regressive dune-beach ridge deposits referred to as the Northeast Ridges unit, with sea-level positions ranging from +4.5 m early in the central part of West Caicos, to +0.5 m on the far northeast coast, eventually building down below present-day sea level. This sea-level history fits well with previously documented records in the Bahamas and globally, and the extensive erosion supports a short-lived (between 126 and 120 ka) intra-MIS 5e relative-sea-level fall. Holocene deposition on West Caicos is restricted to northern and eastern margins of the island as a combination of strandplain and dune ridge mixed skeletal–oolitic units. Using the high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and linked digital geologic map makes it possible to compare areas of the different Pleistocene and Holocene units quantitatively and to constrain volumetric assessments and accumulation rates on the island for different units. The peak sediment volume production/accumulation rate—between 6.5 and 8 × 106 m3 or between 2.2 and 2.7 × 106 m3 per ka—is observed in the upper MIS 5e unit. This rate is 5 times greater than the 0.5 × 106 m3 per ka estimated for the Holocene ooid dune-ridge/strandplain complex, suggesting that the combination of higher sea level, greater wave and wind energy, and warmer ocean temperatures may have fostered the higher rate of chemically precipitated sediment supply. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keyword :

Amino acid racemizations Carbonate stratigraphies Controlling parameters Digital elevation model Marine isotope stages Sea-level fluctuations Stratigraphic framework Stratigraphic records

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GB/T 7714 Kerans, Charles , Zahm, Chris , Bachtel, Steven L. et al. Anatomy of a late Quaternary carbonate island: Constraints on timing and magnitude of sea-level fluctuations, West Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands, BWI [J]. | Quaternary Science Reviews , 2019 , 205 : 193-223 .
MLA Kerans, Charles et al. "Anatomy of a late Quaternary carbonate island: Constraints on timing and magnitude of sea-level fluctuations, West Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands, BWI" . | Quaternary Science Reviews 205 (2019) : 193-223 .
APA Kerans, Charles , Zahm, Chris , Bachtel, Steven L. , Hearty, Paul , Cheng, Hai . Anatomy of a late Quaternary carbonate island: Constraints on timing and magnitude of sea-level fluctuations, West Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands, BWI . | Quaternary Science Reviews , 2019 , 205 , 193-223 .
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Investigating the 8.2 ka event in northwestern Madagascar: Insight from data?model comparisons EI
期刊论文 | 2019 , 204 , 172-186 | Quaternary Science Reviews
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The 8.2 ka event is a well-known cooling event in the Northern Hemisphere, but is poorly understood in Madagascar. Here, we compare paleoclimate data and outputs from paleoclimate simulations to better understand it. Records from Madagascar suggest two distinct sub-events (8.3 ka and 8.2 ka), that seem to correlate with records from northern high latitude. This could indicate causal relationships via changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) with changes in moisture source's δ18O, and changes in the mean position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), as climate modelling suggests. These two sub-events are also apparent in other terrestrial records, but the climatic signals are different. The prominent 8.2 ka sub-event records a clear antiphase relationship between the northern and southern hemisphere monsoons, whereas such relationship is less evident during the first 8.3 ka sub-event. Data–model comparison have also shown a mismatch between the paleoclimate data and the model outputs, the causes of which are more or less understood and may lie in the proxies, in the model, or in both data and model. Knowing that paleoclimate proxies and climate models produce different sets of variables, further research is needed to improve the data–model comparison approach, so that both paleoclimate data and paleoclimate models will better predict the likely climate status of a region during a specified time in the past with minimal uncertainties. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keyword :

8.2 ka event AMOC Holocenes Madagascar Model comparison Paleoclimates Speleothems Stable isotopes

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GB/T 7714 Voarintsoa, Ny Riavo G. , Matero, Ilkka S.O. , Railsback, L. Bruce et al. Investigating the 8.2 ka event in northwestern Madagascar: Insight from data?model comparisons [J]. | Quaternary Science Reviews , 2019 , 204 : 172-186 .
MLA Voarintsoa, Ny Riavo G. et al. "Investigating the 8.2 ka event in northwestern Madagascar: Insight from data?model comparisons" . | Quaternary Science Reviews 204 (2019) : 172-186 .
APA Voarintsoa, Ny Riavo G. , Matero, Ilkka S.O. , Railsback, L. Bruce , Gregoire, Lauren J. , Tindall, Julia , Sime, Louise et al. Investigating the 8.2 ka event in northwestern Madagascar: Insight from data?model comparisons . | Quaternary Science Reviews , 2019 , 204 , 172-186 .
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Timescales of hydrothermal scavenging in the South Pacific Ocean from 234Th, 230Th, and 228Th EI Scopus
期刊论文 | 2019 , 506 , 146-156 | Earth and Planetary Science Letters
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© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Hydrothermal activity in the deep ocean generates plumes of metal-rich particles capable of removing certain trace elements from seawater by adsorption and sedimentation. This removal process, known as scavenging, can be probed using the insoluble radiogenic isotopes of thorium (Th), which are produced at a known rate in the water column via the decay of soluble uranium (234Th, 230Th) and radium (228Th) isotopes. We present dissolved and particulate measurements of these three thorium isotopes in a hydrothermal plume observed in the southeast Pacific Ocean on the GEOTRACES GP16 section. Since their half-lives vary from days (234Th) to years (228Th) to tens of thousands of years (230Th), the combination of their signals can be used to understand scavenging processes occurring on a wide range of timescales. Scavenging is a multi-step process involving adsorption and desorption onto particles, followed by particle aggregation, sinking, and eventual sedimentation. We use thorium isotopes to study how hydrothermal activity affects these steps. The rate constants for net adsorption of 234Th determined here are comparable to previous estimates from hydrothermal plumes in the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. The partitioning of 234Th and 230Th between large and small particles is more similar in the hydrothermal plume than above it, indicating faster aggregation of particles within the hydrothermal plume at stations nearby the East Pacific Rise than in waters outside the plume. In addition to rapid scavenging and aggregation near the ridge axis, we also infer continuous off-axis scavenging from observations and modeling of 228Th/228Ra activity ratios. The degree of depletion of the three thorium isotopes increases in order of half-life, with total 234Th activity close to that of its parent 238U, but 230Th showing nearly 70% depletion compared to expected values from reversible scavenging. By modeling the variations in depletion for the different isotopes, we show that much of the 230Th removal is inherited from scavenging events happening long before the most recent hydrothermal inputs.

Keyword :

East Pacific Rise GEOTRACES hydrothermal activity scavenging thorium

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GB/T 7714 Pavia, Frank J. , Anderson, Robert F. , Black, Erin E. et al. Timescales of hydrothermal scavenging in the South Pacific Ocean from 234Th, 230Th, and 228Th [J]. | Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 2019 , 506 : 146-156 .
MLA Pavia, Frank J. et al. "Timescales of hydrothermal scavenging in the South Pacific Ocean from 234Th, 230Th, and 228Th" . | Earth and Planetary Science Letters 506 (2019) : 146-156 .
APA Pavia, Frank J. , Anderson, Robert F. , Black, Erin E. , Kipp, Lauren E. , Vivancos, Sebastian M. , Fleisher, Martin Q. et al. Timescales of hydrothermal scavenging in the South Pacific Ocean from 234Th, 230Th, and 228Th . | Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 2019 , 506 , 146-156 .
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Hydro-climatic variability in the southwestern Indian Ocean between 6000 and 3000 years ago SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 14 (12) , 1881-1891 | CLIMATE OF THE PAST
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The "4.2 ka event" is frequently described as a major global climate anomaly between 4.2 and 3.9 ka, which defines the beginning of the current Meghalayan age in the Holocene epoch. The "event" has been disproportionately reported from proxy records from the Northern Hemisphere, but its climatic manifestation remains much less clear in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we present highly resolved and chronologically well-constrained speleothem oxygen and carbon isotopes records between similar to 6 and 3 ka from Rodrigues Island in the southwestern subtropical Indian Ocean, located similar to 600 km east of Mauritius. Our records show that the 4.2 ka event did not manifest itself as a period of major climate change at Rodrigues Island in the context of our record's length. Instead, we find evidence for a multi-centennial drought that occurred near-continuously between 3.9 and 3.5 ka and temporally coincided with climate change throughout the Southern Hemisphere.

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GB/T 7714 Li, Hanying , Cheng, Hai , Sinha, Ashish et al. Hydro-climatic variability in the southwestern Indian Ocean between 6000 and 3000 years ago [J]. | CLIMATE OF THE PAST , 2018 , 14 (12) : 1881-1891 .
MLA Li, Hanying et al. "Hydro-climatic variability in the southwestern Indian Ocean between 6000 and 3000 years ago" . | CLIMATE OF THE PAST 14 . 12 (2018) : 1881-1891 .
APA Li, Hanying , Cheng, Hai , Sinha, Ashish , Kathayat, Gayatri , Spotl, Christoph , Andre, Aurele Anquetil et al. Hydro-climatic variability in the southwestern Indian Ocean between 6000 and 3000 years ago . | CLIMATE OF THE PAST , 2018 , 14 (12) , 1881-1891 .
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Atmospheric C-14/C-12 changes during the last glacial period from Hulu Cave SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 362 (6420) , 1293-+ | SCIENCE
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Paired measurements of C-14/C-12 and Th-230 ages from two Hulu Cave stalagmites complete a precise record of atmospheric C-14 covering the full range of the C-14 dating method (similar to 54,000 years). Over the last glacial period, atmospheric C-14/C-12 ranges from values similar to modern values to values 1.70 times higher (42,000 to 39,000 years ago). The latter correspond to C-14 ages 5200 years less than calibrated ages and correlate with the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion followed by Heinrich Stadial 4. Millennial-scale variations are largely attributable to Earth's magnetic field changes and in part to climate-related changes in the oceanic carbon cycle. A progressive shift to lower C-14/C-12 values between 25,000 and 11,000 years ago is likely related, in part, to progressively increasing ocean ventilation rates.

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GB/T 7714 Cheng, Hai , Edwards, R. Lawrence , Southon, John et al. Atmospheric C-14/C-12 changes during the last glacial period from Hulu Cave [J]. | SCIENCE , 2018 , 362 (6420) : 1293-+ .
MLA Cheng, Hai et al. "Atmospheric C-14/C-12 changes during the last glacial period from Hulu Cave" . | SCIENCE 362 . 6420 (2018) : 1293-+ .
APA Cheng, Hai , Edwards, R. Lawrence , Southon, John , Matsumoto, Katsumi , Feinberg, Joshua M. , Sinha, Ashish et al. Atmospheric C-14/C-12 changes during the last glacial period from Hulu Cave . | SCIENCE , 2018 , 362 (6420) , 1293-+ .
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Evaluating the timing and structure of the 4.2 ka event in the Indian summer monsoon domain from an annually resolved speleothem record from Northeast India SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 14 (12) , 1869-1879 | CLIMATE OF THE PAST
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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A large array of proxy records suggests that the "4.2 ka event" marks an approximately 300-year long period (similar to 3.9 to 4.2 ka) of major climate change across the globe. However, the climatic manifestation of this event, including its onset, duration, and termination, remains less clear in the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) domain. Here, we present new oxygen isotope (delta O-18) data from a pair of speleothems (ML.1 and ML.2) from Mawmluh Cave, Meghalaya, India, that provide a high-resolution record of ISM variability during a period (similar to 3.78 and 4.44 ka) that fully encompasses the 4.2 ka event. The sub-annually to annually resolved ML.1 delta O-18 record is constrained by 18 Th-230 dates with an average dating error of +/- 13 years (2 sigma) and a resolution of similar to 40 years, which allows us to characterize the ISM variability with unprecedented detail. The inferred pattern of ISM variability during the period contemporaneous with the 4.2 ka event shares broad similarities and key differences with the previous reconstructions of ISM from the Mawmluh Cave and other proxy records from the region. Our data suggest that the ISM intensity, in the context of the length of our record, abruptly decreased at similar to 4.0 ka (similar to +/- 13 years), marking the onset of a multi-centennial period of relatively reduced ISM, which was punctuated by at least two multi-decadal droughts between similar to 3.9 and 4.0 ka. The latter stands out in contrast with some previous proxy reconstructions of the ISM, in which the 4.2 ka event has been depicted as a singular multi-centennial drought.

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GB/T 7714 Kathayat, Gayatri , Cheng, Hai , Sinha, Ashish et al. Evaluating the timing and structure of the 4.2 ka event in the Indian summer monsoon domain from an annually resolved speleothem record from Northeast India [J]. | CLIMATE OF THE PAST , 2018 , 14 (12) : 1869-1879 .
MLA Kathayat, Gayatri et al. "Evaluating the timing and structure of the 4.2 ka event in the Indian summer monsoon domain from an annually resolved speleothem record from Northeast India" . | CLIMATE OF THE PAST 14 . 12 (2018) : 1869-1879 .
APA Kathayat, Gayatri , Cheng, Hai , Sinha, Ashish , Berkelhammer, Max , Zhang, Haiwei , Duan, Pengzhen et al. Evaluating the timing and structure of the 4.2 ka event in the Indian summer monsoon domain from an annually resolved speleothem record from Northeast India . | CLIMATE OF THE PAST , 2018 , 14 (12) , 1869-1879 .
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Hydroclimatic variations in southeastern China during the 4.2 ka event reflected by stalagmite records SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 14 (11) , 1805-1817 | CLIMATE OF THE PAST
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Although the collapses of several Neolithic cultures in China are considered to have been associated with abrupt climate change during the 4.2 ka BP event (4.23.9 ka BP), the timing and nature of this event and the spatial distribution of precipitation between northern and southern China are still controversial. The hydroclimate of this event in southeastern China is still poorly known, except for a few published records from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. In this study, a high-resolution record of monsoon precipitation between 5.3 and 3.57 ka BP based on a stalagmite from Shennong Cave, Jiangxi Province, southeast China, is presented. Coherent variations in delta O-18 and delta C-13 reveal that the climate in this part of China was dominantly wet between 5.3 and 4.5 ka BP and mostly dry between 4.5 and 3.57 ka BP, interrupted by a wet interval (4.2-3.9 ka BP). A comparison with other records from monsoonal China suggests that summer monsoon precipitation decreased in northern China but increased in southern China during the 4.2 ka BP event. We propose that the weakened East Asian summer monsoon controlled by the reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation resulted in this contrasting distribution of monsoon precipitation between northern and southern China. During the 4.2 ka BP event the rain belt remained longer at its southern position, giving rise to a pronounced humidity gradient between northern and southern China.

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Haiwei , Cheng, Hai , Cai, Yanjun et al. Hydroclimatic variations in southeastern China during the 4.2 ka event reflected by stalagmite records [J]. | CLIMATE OF THE PAST , 2018 , 14 (11) : 1805-1817 .
MLA Zhang, Haiwei et al. "Hydroclimatic variations in southeastern China during the 4.2 ka event reflected by stalagmite records" . | CLIMATE OF THE PAST 14 . 11 (2018) : 1805-1817 .
APA Zhang, Haiwei , Cheng, Hai , Cai, Yanjun , Spotl, Christoph , Kathayat, Gayatri , Sinha, Ashish et al. Hydroclimatic variations in southeastern China during the 4.2 ka event reflected by stalagmite records . | CLIMATE OF THE PAST , 2018 , 14 (11) , 1805-1817 .
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Speleothem record of geomagnetic South Atlantic Anomaly recurrence SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 115 (52) , 13198-13203 | PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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The diminishing strength of the Earth's magnetic dipole over recent millennia is accompanied by the increasing prominence of the geomagnetic South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), which spreads over the South Atlantic Ocean and South America. The longevity of this feature at millennial timescales is elusive because of the scarcity of continuous geomagnetic data for the region. Here, we report a unique geomagnetic record for the last similar to 1500 y that combines the data of two well-dated stalagmites from Pau d'Alho cave, located close to the present-day minimum of the anomaly in central South America. Magnetic directions and relative paleointensity data for both stalagmites are generally consistent and agree with historical data from the last 500 y. Before 1500 CE, the data adhere to the geomagnetic model ARCH3K. 1, which is derived solely from archeomagnetic data. Our observations indicate rapid directional variations (> 0.1 degrees/y) from approximately 860 to 960 CE and approximately 1450 to 1750 CE. A similar pattern of rapid directional variation observed from South Africa precedes the South American record by 224 +/- 50 y. These results confirm that fast geomagnetic field variations linked to the SAA are a recurrent feature in the region. We develop synthetic models of reversed magnetic flux patches at the core-mantle boundary and calculate their expression at the Earth's surface. The models that qualitatively resemble the observational data involve westward (and southward) migration of midlatitude patches, combined with their expansion and intensification.

Keyword :

paleomagnetism South Atlantic Anomaly speleothem archeomagnetism geomagnetism

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GB/T 7714 Trindade, Ricardo I. F. , Jaqueto, Plinio , Terra-Nova, Filipe et al. Speleothem record of geomagnetic South Atlantic Anomaly recurrence [J]. | PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA , 2018 , 115 (52) : 13198-13203 .
MLA Trindade, Ricardo I. F. et al. "Speleothem record of geomagnetic South Atlantic Anomaly recurrence" . | PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 115 . 52 (2018) : 13198-13203 .
APA Trindade, Ricardo I. F. , Jaqueto, Plinio , Terra-Nova, Filipe , Brandt, Daniele , Hartmann, Gelvam A. , Feinberg, Joshua M. et al. Speleothem record of geomagnetic South Atlantic Anomaly recurrence . | PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA , 2018 , 115 (52) , 13198-13203 .
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Multi-scale variability of the Asian monsoon recorded in an annually-banded stalagmite during the Neoglacial from Qixing Cave, Southwestern China SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 487 , 78-86 | QUATERNARY INTERNATIONAL
WoS CC Cited Count: 1 SCOPUS Cited Count: 2
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Solar forcing of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) and the embedded feedback mechanism remain highly controversial. In this study, interannual-scale ASM variability from 3.58 to 2.28 ka BP is reconstructed based on the delta O-18 record of an annually laminated stalagmite from Qixing Cave in southwestern China. The cave delta O-18 record agrees well with a record of solar activity on the centennial scale during the whole time series. Furthermore, statistical analysis of singular spectrum and wavelet spectrum shows a significant cycle of similar to 60 years, one of the solar activity cycles. The two lines of evidence have consolidated the solar impact on a centennial-decadal time scale of ASM variability. Timing and structure of the 2.8 ka event, detected in various archives at a global scale, have been well determined in our delta O-18 record with a high-precision time scale established by absolute Th-230 dating and annual-layer counting. We observed an asymmetrical pattern of the event, i.e. a gradual transition at the onset with a rapid end, which can be interpreted as a far-field effect of changing thermohaline circulations in the North Atlantic. We further demonstrate a striking inverse correlation between the ASM and the Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (IASM) on the centennial scale, including three dominant ASM depression events that are related to periods of weak solar activity. The evidence we present here supports that ocean -atmosphere interactions amplified the solar signal and caused abrupt cooling events in widespread areas during the Holocene. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Neoglacial Speleothem Monsoonal climate Qixing Cave Southwestern China

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Zhen-Qiu , Wang, Yong-Jin , Liu, Dian-Bing et al. Multi-scale variability of the Asian monsoon recorded in an annually-banded stalagmite during the Neoglacial from Qixing Cave, Southwestern China [J]. | QUATERNARY INTERNATIONAL , 2018 , 487 : 78-86 .
MLA Zhang, Zhen-Qiu et al. "Multi-scale variability of the Asian monsoon recorded in an annually-banded stalagmite during the Neoglacial from Qixing Cave, Southwestern China" . | QUATERNARY INTERNATIONAL 487 (2018) : 78-86 .
APA Zhang, Zhen-Qiu , Wang, Yong-Jin , Liu, Dian-Bing , Cheng, Hai , Huang, Wei , Wang, Quan et al. Multi-scale variability of the Asian monsoon recorded in an annually-banded stalagmite during the Neoglacial from Qixing Cave, Southwestern China . | QUATERNARY INTERNATIONAL , 2018 , 487 , 78-86 .
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The timing, two-pulsed nature, and variable climatic expression of the 4.2 ka event: A review and new high-resolution stalagmite data from Namibia EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 186 , 78-90 | QUATERNARY SCIENCE REVIEWS
WoS CC Cited Count: 3 SCOPUS Cited Count: 3
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Abstract :

The climatic event between 4.2 and 3.9 ka BP known as the "4.2 ka event" is commonly considered to be a synchronous global drought that happened as one pulse. However, careful comparison of records from around the world shows that synchrony is possible only if the published chronologies of the various records are shifted to the extent allowed by the uncertainties of their age data, that several records suggest a two-pulsed event, and that some records suggest a wet rather than dry event. The radiometric ages constraining those records have uncertainties of several decades if not hundreds of years, and in some records the event is represented by only one or two analyses. This paper reports a new record from Stalagmite DP1 from northeastern Namibia in which high Th-230/Th-232 activity ratios allow small age uncertainties ranging between only 10-28 years, and the event is documented by more than 35 isotopic analyses and by petrographic observation of a surface of dissolution. The ages from Stalagmite DP1 combine with results from 11 other records from around the world to suggest an event centered at about 4.07 ka BP with bracketing ages of 4.15 to 3.93 ka BP. The isotopic and petrographic results suggest a two pulsed wet event in northeastern Namibia, which is in the Southern Hemisphere's summer rainfall zone where more rain presumably fell with southward migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone as the result of cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. Comparison with other records from outside the region of dryness from the Mediterranean to eastern Asia suggests that multiple climatic zones similarly moved southward during the event, in some cases bringing wetter conditions that contradict the notion of global drought. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Speleothems 4.2 ka event Stalagmite Africa Inter-tropical convergence zone Paleoclimate Paleoclimatology Namibia Holocene

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GB/T 7714 Railsback, L. Bruce , Liang, Fuyuan , Brook, G. A. et al. The timing, two-pulsed nature, and variable climatic expression of the 4.2 ka event: A review and new high-resolution stalagmite data from Namibia [J]. | QUATERNARY SCIENCE REVIEWS , 2018 , 186 : 78-90 .
MLA Railsback, L. Bruce et al. "The timing, two-pulsed nature, and variable climatic expression of the 4.2 ka event: A review and new high-resolution stalagmite data from Namibia" . | QUATERNARY SCIENCE REVIEWS 186 (2018) : 78-90 .
APA Railsback, L. Bruce , Liang, Fuyuan , Brook, G. A. , Voarintsoa, Ny Riavo G. , Sletten, Hillary R. , Marais, Eugene et al. The timing, two-pulsed nature, and variable climatic expression of the 4.2 ka event: A review and new high-resolution stalagmite data from Namibia . | QUATERNARY SCIENCE REVIEWS , 2018 , 186 , 78-90 .
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